Turban and Breastplate
Sardius (sard, or sardin) is a transpar ent reddish stone, a bit darker than carnelian. The Hebrew word suggests the meaning of “redness.” The “ruby” (28:18 TEV), though well known today, was probably not known in the ancient Near East, for no samples have been found in any of the excavated sites.
Topaz is a translucent stone, usually yellow or brownish yellow. Some scholars equate it with chrysolite, which usually is olive greenish in color. The Hebrew word does not suggest any color, but the Septuagint translates it as topazion.
Carbuncle is an archaic word for any one of several red precious stones. “Garnet” (28:18 TEV) is a translucent dark reddish brown stone. But the Septuagint identifies it as green beryl, possibly emerald.
Emerald is a rich green stone, a superior quality of beryl. Some scholars have suggested the Hebrew word refers to malachite, which is green, or turquoise, and usually a bluish green. The Hebrew word gives no ind…