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Words of “Sin” in the New Testament

Words of “Sin” in the New Testament

The principal NT term is hamartia (and cognates), which is equivalent to ḥṭ’. In classical Gk. it is used for missing a target or taking a wrong road. It is the general NT term for sin as concrete wrongdoing, the violation of God’s law (Jn. 8:46Jas. 1:151 Jn. 1:8). In Rom. 5–8 Paul personifies the term as a ruling principle in human life (cf. 5:126:12147:17208:2). paraptōma occurs in classical contexts for an error in measurement or a blunder. The NT gives it a stronger moral connotation as misdeed or trespass (cf. ‘dead through … ’Eph. 2:1Mt. 6:14f.). parabasis is a similarly derived term with similar meaning, ‘transgression’, ‘going beyond the norm’ (Rom. 4:15Heb. 2:2). asebeia is perhaps the profoundest NT term and commonly translates pš‘ in the lxx. It implies active ungodliness or impiety (Rom. 1:182 Tim. 2:16). Another term is anomia, lawlessness, a contempt for law (Mt. 7:232 Cor. 6:14). kakia and ponēria are general terms expressing moral and spiritual depravity (Acts 8:22Rom. 1:29Lk. 11:39Eph. 6:12). The last of these references indicates the association of the latter term with Satan, the evil one, ho ponēros(Mt. 13:191 Jn. 3:12). adikia is the main classical term for wrong done to one’s neighbour. It is translated variously as ‘injustice’ (Rom. 9:14), ‘unrighteousness’ (Lk. 18:6), ‘falsehood’ (Jn. 7:18), ‘wickedness’ (Rom. 2:8), ‘iniquity’ (2 Tim. 2:19). 1 Jn. equates it with hamartia (1 Jn. 3:45:17). Also occurring are enochos, a legal term meaning ‘guilty’ (Mk. 3:291 Cor. 11:27), and opheilēma, ‘debt’ (Mt. 6:12). More
Milne, B. A. with J.M. “Sin.” Ed. D. R. W. Wood et al. New Bible dictionary 1996 : 1105. Print.
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